Paper (2009) In IEEE Transactions on Visualization and CG "Fluid Simulation with Articulated Bodies"
Nipun Kwatra, Chris Wojtan, Mark Carlson, Irfan A. Essa, Peter J. Mucha, Greg Turk (2009), “Fluid Simulation with Articulated Bodies“, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 10 Jun. 2009. IEEE computer Society Digital Library. IEEE Computer Society. [DOI | PDF (see copyright) | Video | Website]
We present an algorithm for creating realistic animations of characters that are swimming through fluids. Our approach combines dynamic simulation with data-driven kinematic motions (motion capture data) to produce realistic animation in a fluid. The interaction of the articulated body with the fluid is performed by incorporating joint constraints with rigid animation and by extending a solid/fluid coupling method to handle articulated chains. Our solver takes as input the current state of the simulation and calculates the angular and linear accelerations of the connected bodies needed to match a particular motion sequence for the articulated body. These accelerations are used to estimate the forces and torques that are then applied to each joint. Based on this approach, we demonstrate simulated swimming results for a variety of different strokes, including crawl, backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly. The ability to have articulated bodies interact with fluids also allows us to generate simulations of simple water creatures that are driven by simple controllers.